Plants have the ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds that are of great biological and medicinal value. Uvaria chamae is one of the medicinal plants found naturally in the Savannah and the Eastern part of Nigeria. It is called bush banana or finger root in English, Oko-aja or Eruju in Yoruba, Nkariko in Efik, Kaskaifi in Hausa and Awuloko or Ayiloko in Igala. Some malaria causative parasites have been shown in the recent years to be resistant to modern pharmaceutical drugs, hence in this research, the extract of Uvaria chamae was examined for its phytochemicals and antimalarial potency. The phytochemical screening of the ethanol extract of the leaves revealed the presence of Tannin, Alkaloid, Steroid, and Flavonoid while Anthraquinone was not detected. The toxicity test was carried out and the result showed that the plant extract is not toxic since it caused no death of any rat during the Median Lethal dose (LD50) test. The mean parasitemia level of all the rats in groups 1, 2, and 3 were treated with various concentrations of the extract while group 4 was treated with a standard drug (chloroquine), then group 5 received only Normal saline (Negative control). The mean parasitemia level of the treated group 1 (26mg/kg), group 2 (51mg/kg), and group 3 (71mg/kg) were statistically significant (p<0.05) and were found to be significantly higher when compared to group 4 (5mg/kg chloroquine) on days 3 and 5. From the result, it showed that Uvaria chamae leaves can be used in the management of malaria.
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